Thursday, December 20, 2012

CHICHEN ITZA


ESPAÑOL

For many years I had wanted to visit Chichen Itza, the spectacular Mayan city located in the forest of the Yucatan peninsula, east of Mexico, long before it was chosen as one of the 7 wonders or that it became fashionable in the tabloids due to an apocalyptic interpretation of the "prophecies" Maya.


Here, we need to use our imagination to picture an impressive citadel, full of colorful monuments whose volumes, painted in ocher, tuquoise, green, orange, white and black, stood stunningly against the blue sky. Like their ancestors of Teotihuacan, the Mayans in Chichen Itza combined architecture with rich and colorful sculptures, evident in the detail of a profuse relief sculpture that represents snakes and other divine creatures.



Mayan cities enjoyed a sophisticated urban and architectural planning , with complex systems of aqueducts, canals and drains.


The city of Chichen Itza was huge and covered an area of ​​24 square kilometers with about 400 stone buildings distributed in 46 groups, that were built over the centuries. While it is not necessary to use the imagination to know the features of its inhabitants, as their descendants walk throughout the complex as craft vendors, it is necessary to imagine their numbers: more than 100,000 inhabitants ( only 10 cities in the world had that population 1000 years ago).



Regarding the urban landscape, I asked our guide how accurate was Mel Gibson's Apocalypto and he replied: "It is out of time, the Mayans were in decline when the Spanish arrived and they did not go to capture prisoners. Aside of that, the representation is quite realistic. "


However, the area that we see today corresponds to a ritual zone and it was encircled by a wall, which means that generally  it could only be accessed by prominent authorities. At night, this area must have become a wonderful spectacle, when the pyramids were illuminated by hundreds of torches, as it is evidenced by the traces of oil found in the pyramids.

The pyramids were made of limestone joined with a cement made of burnt lime, crushed and mixed with water, and they were often built on top of  previous structures. Excavations confirm that the Kukulcan pyramid stands over three ancient structures, which allowed it to reach a height of 24 meters to the top platform. To these are added the 6 meters of the temple on its peak, reaching a total of 30 m.




Each of the sides of the base measures 55 m, making it smaller than the Pyramid of the Sun at Teotihuacan .


Besides its size and elaborate artistic quality, Chichen Itza is an outstanding example of astronomical knowledge applied to architecture. A detail in the Kukulcan Pyramid, also called "the Castle," are the two serpents that flank the central staircase.


Well, in December 21st, during the winter solstice (yes, the day when "the world ends") the stairs of the pyramid produce a shadow in the shape of a snake and that, starting from the head form the body of the magic reptile, thus uniting heaven and earth. The detailed Mayan calendars also allowed them to understand the cycles of the stars and eclipses, and used that information to govern, control and impress people.




Another impressive aspect in this urban space is the acoustics. The sound was thoroughly studied, and allowed a person to clearly hear the speaker talking at the top of the pyramid. The following video   demonstrates the impressive effect obtained by  a single clap, whose sound was enhanced 10 to 12 times. Can you imagine the cry of a crowd?


The acoustic effect not only occurred in the pyramid, but also in the structure for the ball game.



This was a solemn space, where a game similar to football was played (although it could play with shoulders, elbows and knees) bouncing a rubber ball between two teams of seven players.


The game ended when the ball passed through one of the two rings especially carved in stone located at each side of this space.


The game was a sacred ritual, and the losing team was sacrificed, as evidenced by the reliefs found on one side of the structure


Besides the buildings, the complex contains a large well or cenote, vital for supplying water to the population and where, paradoxically, human sacrifices were offered during  times of drought. Because of them the city is named: Chi Cheen Itz a means "mouth of the well of water witches".

This brings up the huge environmental footprint that the city should have had, not only by the deforestation involving the city area itself, but by the large number of trees and water that was required in the construction process. This forest devastation was one of the causes of the decline of the Mayan civilization. Indeed, the city was abandoned already in the thirteenth century, three centuries before the arrival of the Spanish, due to environmental collapse and the brutality and cruelty of the ruling class, which was then a coalition formed by the Mayans and the Toltecs. The latter subjugated the Maya culture and exercised their power through human sacrifices to worship the sun, which according to them was fed only by the hearts of the sacrificed. For this reason many people fled to the jungle, accelerating the city's  process of collapse.
By the time Europeans arrived in this city, the jungle had claimed it for himself.


SEE ALSO
- ASTRONOMY AND ANCIENT ARCHITECTURE



82 comments:

  1. Are you having issue while completing your marketing assignments? Well, IdealAssignmentHelp will help you with your assignments and help you with the best of experience. Marketing assignment Help experts will not only help you in getting your assignment covered in the given time period also without any kind of mistakes in it. So, get your complex marketing assignment covered without having to stress about the quality anymore. You can also reach out to Essay writing Service experts any time and we will never let you down in terms of quality and as well as rates! Get Connected now for top notch writing experience for excellent future ahead!

    ReplyDelete
  2. .I have learned a lot of good and informative stuff from your blog.Thank you so much for sharing this wonderful post. Keep posting such valuable contents.
    Layers Manager

    ReplyDelete
  3. Getting the services of Engineering Homework Writing Online as well as Mechanical Engineering Assignment Help gives you enough time to concentrate on other pending matters. Ask for Urgent Assignment Writing Help at affordable cost

    ReplyDelete
  4. Tracking possibilities for shipments are rated at 4.17. It indicates a good performance - the tracking systems provide detailed and up-to-date information about most of the parameters of shipments, as well as often transcend national (both political and linguisitc) barriers and may be qualified as international shipment tracking systems. http://www.confiduss.com/en/jurisdictions/germany/infrastructure/

    ReplyDelete
  5. This is very amazing blog to know about the best tourist spot. All the information and images are really fantastic. I genuinely appreciate your information. This great article has really peaked my interest. thanks for sharing.
    Apartments & Villas for Rent in Dubai

    ReplyDelete
  6. I guess I really got sucked into your blog because when I saw the time I was surprise to see that I've spent over 5 or so hours on your article.
    I am really blown away at how slow your page loaded on my phone.|This write up definitely has all of the info and facts anyone could want.|This website sure did jump started my interest.
    I was checking out a bean bag chair earlier but I still This information you are providing is magnificent. I really like this style of writing and how well the ideas are conveyed. You really have an amazing way of thinking about things. 풀싸롱
    (mie)

    ReplyDelete
  7. Wow! Such an amazing and helpful post this is. I really really love it. It's so good and so awesome. I am just amazed. I hope that you continue to do your work like this in the future also. 슬롯
    (mm)

    ReplyDelete
  8. Nice article. I am truly getting a charge out of pursuing your elegantly composed articles. Thanks for this. I really like what you've posted here and wish you the best of luck with this blog!
    Personal Accident Insurance in UAE

    ReplyDelete
  9. Thinking positively on how to buy magic mushrooms online, magic truffles and how to grow magic mushroom ? Where to buy pills online , Vapes.
    You are at the right place to get magic mushrooms from our store and we guarantee 100 percent satisfaction on our products.
    Click below

    buy mdma pills online.

    buy magic mushrooms capsules online with bitcoins.

    buy magic mushroom chocolate bar online.

    best place buy pills online without prescription.

    buy ultimate vapes online.

    ReplyDelete
  10. Your post is extremely incredible, worthy words I have gained more information. Inspiring writings and I greatly admired what you have to say , I hope you continue to provide new ideas for us all and greetings success always for you.
    Turkish Citizenship by Investment

    ReplyDelete
  11. Superb blog, I deeply read your blog and I like to read It, keep share like this type of enjoyable article, thank you so much for share with us this useful information.
    Online Travel Insurance Products UAE

    ReplyDelete
  12. We are Number 1 in Accounting Assignment Help - Accounting Homework Help. Hire us for Accounting Term Papers and Accounting Projects.When it comes to helping students with comprehensive accounting assignment assistance, we, at, Get Assignment Help, believe in maximizing our efforts to assist students to cope with all intricate subjects related to accounting.

    ReplyDelete
  13. This is a correct weblog for anyone who wishes to be familiar with this topic. Wanna check out my blog? Just click here: 스포츠토토

    ReplyDelete
  14. Thanks for sharing this Blog with us your blog is very interesting if want more information topic about CASINO and SportsToto? Click here: 바카라사이트

    ReplyDelete
  15. Such unbelievable information. I like the way clear up. Compassionately do check my blog. Best of luck!!! Check out my site: 파워볼

    ReplyDelete
  16. Really informative post. I personally thought the written post is well suited and trouble-free for me to go after provided guideline. Thank you for sharing~ visit this site to find out more: 카지노사이트

    ReplyDelete
  17. Hey There. I found your weblog using msn. This is an extremely smartly written article. I’ll be sure to bookmark it and return to learn extra of your helpful information. Thanks for the post.
    I’ll certainly return.
    고스톱

    ReplyDelete
  18. Great goods from you, man. I have understand your stuff previous to and you are just extremely fantastic. I really like what you’ve acquired here, really like what you are saying and the way in which you say it. You make it enjoyable and you still care for to keep it smart. I cant wait to read far more from you. This is really a great site.
    스포츠토토

    ReplyDelete
  19. This is really interesting, You are a very skilled blogger. I have joined your feed and look forward to seeking more of your fantastic post. Also, I Have shared your website in my social networks!
    성인웹툰

    ReplyDelete
  20. Excellent site you've got here.. It's hard to find high-quality writing like yours nowadays. I seriously appreciate individuals like you! Take care!!
    토토사이트

    ReplyDelete
  21. I want to we appreciate you this passion you cash in on throughout establishing the next few paragraphs. I am trustworthy identical best work from you when you need it at the same time. Feel free to visit my website; 야설

    ReplyDelete
  22. Hello ! I am the one who writes posts on these topics카지노사이트 I would like to write an article based on your article. When can I ask for a review?

    ReplyDelete
  23. Pretty nice post. I just stumbled upon your weblog and wanted to say that I have really enjoyed browsing your blog posts. After all I’ll be subscribing to your feed and I hope you write again soon! 토토 사이트

    ReplyDelete
  24. I really thank you for the valuable info on this great subject and look forward to more great posts. Thanks a lot for enjoying this beauty article with me. I am appreciating it very much! Looking forward to another great article. Good luck to the author! All the best! 바카라사이트

    ReplyDelete
  25. 카지노사이트January 9, 2022 at 3:31 PM

    I saw your article well. You seem to enjoy 카지노사이트 for some reason. We can help you enjoy more fun. Welcome anytime :-)


    ReplyDelete
  26. Of course, your article is good enough, 슬롯사이트 but I thought it would be much better to see professional photos and videos together. There are articles and photos on these topics on my homepage, so please visit and share your opinions.

    ReplyDelete
  27. assignmenthelp provides the best assistance with your assignments at affordable prices.

    ReplyDelete
  28. First of all, thank you for letting me see this information. I think this article can give me a lot of inspiration. I would appreciate 바카라사이트 if you could post more good contents in the future.

    ReplyDelete
  29. That is a great tip particularly to those new to the blogosphere.
    Simple but very accurate info? Thank you for sharing this one.
    A must read post!
    Appreciating the hard work you put into your site and detailed information you present.
    Wonderful read!
    메이저사이트

    ReplyDelete
  30. Hello, I enjoy reading all of your article post. I like to write a little comment to support you. 토토

    ReplyDelete
  31. This is such a great resource that you are providing and you give it away for free. 릴게임

    ReplyDelete
  32. I really like and appreciate your article.Really thank you! Keep writing. 토토

    ReplyDelete
  33. webgirls.pl With regards to battling candidiasis, victims often have their function eliminate for them. Simply because candida albicans can certainly grow to be constant and continuous. Knowing that, in the following paragraphs, we will provide a selection of some of the best established candidiasis therapy and prevention ideas about.

    ReplyDelete
  34. what's up colleagues, nice article and nice urging commented at this place, I am truly enjoying by these. Feel free to visit my website;
    야설

    ReplyDelete
  35. This is a very good tip particularly to those fresh to the blogosphere. Brief but very accurate information… Appreciate your sharing this one. A must read post. Feel free to visit my website; 한국야동


    ReplyDelete
  36. With the development of the Internet, we can study ways to enjoy it more easily and comfortably. People all over the world know the greatness of the Internet. 토토사이트

    ReplyDelete
  37. https://gamebegin.xyz You may practice alone. A pitching equipment enables you to establish the pace of the ball. By reloading many baseballs into the unit, you are able to training striking without the need for a pitcher. This digital machine is ideal for these who would like to training baseball alone. Pitching machines might be gathered in your local wearing items store.

    ReplyDelete
  38. https://gameeffect.xyz Many people have cherished the video game of baseball for a long time. There are followers all over the world, from specialized small-leaguers to perish-tough spectators. This article has ways to show how pleasurable baseball happens to be.

    ReplyDelete
  39. https://gameboot.xyz You see them on periodicals and also on Tv set, individuals who seem like their forearms and thighs and legs will explode his or her muscle groups are incredibly huge! There is no require for you to get your body to that particular degree should you don't wish to, since the simple tactics in this post will help you to create muscles within a healthful method.

    ReplyDelete
  40. "You are so intriguing! I figure I haven't really scrutinized anything equivalent already.
    It's uncommon to find someone who has a certified idea on this point.
    Genuinely, thank you for starting this.
    ※사설토토※사설토토사이트※토토사이트※
    오랫동안 많은 업체들과 함께 데이터 베이스를
    구축하였으며 유져님들께서 안전한 놀이터
    및 메이저 사이트에서 부담없이
    최적의 스포츠게임을 즐기실수 있게 최고의
    토토사이트를 제공해드립니다
    ※토토사이트 검증※
    추천받으실수 있습니다.
    This webpage is a necessary thing on the Internet,
    somewhat creative person!토토사이트"

    ReplyDelete
  41. https://gamezoom.xyz Acquiring a exercise routine lover can drastically improve your muscle tissue-developing effects. Your partner can be a important source of enthusiasm for sticking to your exercise routine program, and driving you to definitely maximize your endeavours while you workout. Developing a dependable spouse to determine with will also help help you stay safe as you will use a spotter.

    ReplyDelete
  42. I finally found what I was looking for! I'm so happy. 사설토토사이트 Your article is what I've been looking for for a long time. I'm happy to find you like this. Could you visit my website if you have time? I'm sure you'll find a post of interest that you'll find interesting.

    ReplyDelete
  43. It's hard not to read this post, interesting! Sharing is caring! 바둑이사이트

    ReplyDelete
  44. I would recommend your website to everyone. You have a very good gloss. Write more high-quality articles. I support you. 슬롯머신777사이트

    ReplyDelete
  45. Your web-site is very cool. I’m impressed by the details that you have on this site. It reveals how nicely you understand this subject.
    룰렛사이트탑

    ReplyDelete
  46. Thank you for this wonderful information looking forward for more. I really appreciate your efforts to write such amazing piece of content for us.
    스포츠토토탑

    ReplyDelete
  47. I am glad to discover this page. I have to thank you for the time I spent on this especially great reading !! I really liked each part and also bookmarked you for new information on your site. Feel free to visit my website;
    Sports Toto Zone is Toto , Sports Toto , Proto , Private Toto, Powerball , Safety Playground , Eat Validation ,Topics , Toto Web , Major Sites |스포츠토토존 | Toto site ranking.

    ReplyDelete
  48. I am a 슬롯사이트 expert. I've read a lot of articles, but I'm the first person to understand as well as you. I leave a post for the first time. It's great!!

    ReplyDelete
  49. Your writing is perfect and complete. 크레이지슬롯 However, I think it will be more wonderful if your post includes additional topics that I am thinking of. I have a lot of posts on my site similar to your topic. Would you like to visit once?

    ReplyDelete
  50. Such an amazing and helpful post this is. I really really love it. It’s so good and so awesome. I am just amazed. I hope that you continue to do your work like this in the future also. 파칭코

    ReplyDelete
  51. I don't know how many hours I've been searching for a simple article like this. Thanks to your writing, I am very happy to complete the process now. 안전놀이터

    ReplyDelete
  52. This is the perfect post.메이저토토사이트 It helped me a lot. If you have time, I hope you come to my site and share your opinions. Have a nice day.

    ReplyDelete
  53. My programmer is trying to convince me to move to .net from 토토사이트. I have always disliked the idea because of the expenses. But he's tryiong none the less.

    ReplyDelete
  54. I think this is a really good article. You make this information interesting and engaging. You give readers a lot to think about and I appreciate that kind of writing. 룰렛사이트탑

    ReplyDelete
  55. I am glad to discover this page. I have to thank you for the time I spent on this especially great reading !! I really liked each part and also bookmarked you for new information on your site.
    스포츠토토

    ReplyDelete
  56. I came to this site with the introduction of a friend around me and I was very impressed when I found your writing. I'll come back often after bookmarking! 먹튀검증

    ReplyDelete
  57. You made some good points there. I did a Google search about the topic and found most people will believe your blog. 먹튀검증

    ReplyDelete
  58. Hello, I'm happy to see some great articles on your site. Would you like to come to my site later? My site also has posts, comments and communities similar to yours. Please visit and take a look 메이저놀이터

    ReplyDelete
  59. What a nice post! I'm so happy to read this. 안전놀이터모음 What you wrote was very helpful to me. Thank you. Actually, I run a site similar to you. If you have time, could you visit my site? Please leave your comments after reading what I wrote. If you do so, I will actively reflect your opinion. I think it will be a great help to run my site. Have a good day.

    ReplyDelete
  60. Hello, I am one of the most impressed people in your article. 토토사이트순위 I'm very curious about how you write such a good article. Are you an expert on this subject? I think so. Thank you again for allowing me to read these posts, and have a nice day today. Thank you.

    ReplyDelete
  61. In any case I will be subscribing on your feed and I hope you write again very soon! 카지노

    ReplyDelete
  62. Efficiently written information. It will be profitable to anybody who utilizes it, counting me. Keep up the good work. For certain I will review out more posts day in and day out. 온라인카지노

    ReplyDelete

  63. In your article, points caught my attention the most is how your prose, to give me a deep impression. Wish you would write more. good luck! Feel free to visit my website; 카지노

    ReplyDelete

  64. This is the right blog for anyone who wants to find out about this topic. 호텔카지노

    ReplyDelete
  65. Your post is very helpful and information is reliable. I am satisfied with your post. Thank you so much for sharing this wonderful post. If you have any assignment requirement then you are at the right place. 메이저사이트

    ReplyDelete
  66. I've been looking for photos and articles on this topic over the past few days due to a school assignment, casinosite and I'm really happy to find a post with the material I was looking for! I bookmark and will come often! Thanks :D

    ReplyDelete
  67. Can I just say what a relief to seek out someone who actually is aware of what theyre talking about on the internet. You undoubtedly know the way to bring an issue to light and make it important. More folks have to read this and understand this aspect of the story. I cant believe youre not more popular because you positively have the gift. 안전토토사이트

    ReplyDelete
  68. When I read your article on this topic, the first thought seems profound and difficult. There is also a bulletin board for discussion of articles and photos similar to this topic on my site, but I would like to visit once when I have time to discuss this topic. 메이저토토사이트

    ReplyDelete
  69. Nice one! Thank you for sharing this post. Your blog posts are more interesting and impressive. 토토사이트

    ReplyDelete
  70. Which is some inspirational stuff. Never knew that opinions might be this varied. Thank you for all the enthusiasm to provide such helpful information here. 온라인바카라

    ReplyDelete