Friday, November 23, 2012



Chandigarh is an atypical city in India, unlike the typical urban maze that characterizes cities in neighboring provinces. It is a city full of gardens and parks, wide roads, modern architecture. Chandigarh was the only urban project executed by Le Corbusier, the most influential master of modern architecture, who put all his  effort, heart and soul, in order to fulfill it, from 1951 until his death in 1965. Chandigarh is an impressive legacy of urbanism, landscape design, architecture, sculpture, painting and interior design of the prolific Swiss master has left;  it is an exceptional, utopian city, which remarkable architecture made it a candidate to be declared World Heritage Site by UNESCO .

This article, dedicated to the work of Le Corbusier in India, will be divided into two parts. In the first one, I will discuss the history of Chandigarh, its birth as a city, Le Corbusier's involvement and the major aspects of its urban proposal. In the next post, we will review the main exponents of Corbusian architecture in Chandigarh, especially on the Capitol.

A mixed-use blocks decorated with a mosaic of Le Corbusier. Photo C. Zeballos


The Mongol invasions from the 15th century left not only beautiful architectural jewels such as the Taj Mahal and Jaisalmer, but fundamentally a strong Muslim presence in northern India, a predominantly Hindu country. For this reason, after its independence from the British in 1947 , and to the dismay of Gandhi, the country was divided into two, and Pakistan  was born as Muslim country to the northwest and northeast of Hindu India (later the northeast part also become independent of Pakistan, giving rise to Bangladesh).

Perhaps the most traumatic effect of this division was the fracture of the Punjab province in India, whose historic capital Lahore, was ceded to Pakistan. In addition, the Indian cities of the province became increasingly overcrowded by millions of refugees coming from the north, and the religious-political frictions between the two countries had already left a horrific toll of half a million dead.

In this dramatic context, Prime Minister Nehru decided in 1947 to create a new capital for the Punjab and Haryana provinces, and called it Chandigarh  (चंडीगढ़), meaning "Chandi Fortress", in honor of a fortress temple dedicated to Goddess Chandi that was located nearby.

Monument to Peace,  at the entrance of the waterfront park at Sukhna Lake. More than the shape of the monument, I was interested in the inscription it houses: "Chandigarh, the City of Peace. Let's strive for: community harmony, cultural diversity, rejection of violence, resolution of conflict, reconciliation of differences, freedom of expression." In an area of continuous religious political frictions that aspiration takes on particular significance. Photo C. Zeballos

When India became independent, it was found that there were native no trained professionals on city planning. Some nationalists suggested that the city should be based on the Mansara Shilpa Shastras, some ancient architectural treatises over 3000 years old, while others suggested to hire a foreign western professional in order to create a city as a symbol of the future.
The commission would be given to American architects Matthew Nowicki, and Albert Mayer, who produced a picturesque fan-shaped proposal, borrowing ideas from the Ebenezer Howard's Garden City. However. Nowicki tragically perished in a plane crash and, following Mayer's resignation, the task fell to the hands of the famous Swiss architect Le Corbusier.

Mayer first urban plan, Museum of the City of Chandigarh.
Photo C. Zeballos (distorted by the lens angle)

For his part, Charles-Edouard Jeanneret-Gris (Le Corbusier, 1887-1965), was opposed to the Howard's concept of Garden City and sharply criticized the concept of the American suburb, which he called "the organized slavery of capitalist society, that leads to isolated individualism and to the destruction of the collective spirit. " Influential self-taught architect, Le Corbusier had developed new concepts of architecture that was implemented in various housing, institutional and religious projects. His ideas about urbanism have been equally influential, mainly based on the decongestion and densification of urban centers, providing fast vehicular routes and increasing green areas, and they were mainly discussed at the International Congress of Modern Architecture, CIAM. However, Le Corbusier had not had a chance to implement them.

Le Corbusier in Chandigarh. Photo Courtesy of Chandigarh, The City Beautiful

The vision of the Swiss master perfectly matched Nehru's ambitions of a modern India , and for that reason he was very well welcomed. In 1951 Le Corbusier assumed the role of "spiritual director" of the project and called for a team composed of his French cousin Pierre Jeanerette , the Englishmen Maxwell Fry and Jane Drew and about twenty enthusiastic young Indian architects, who developed a new project , abandoning the one made by Mayer.

The project team: Le Corbusier, Jeanerette, Fry and Drew. Photo Courtesy of Chandigarh, The City Beautiful


The plan, conceived for a city of 500,000, is based on a rectangular grid adapted to field conditions. The basic unit was the "Sector", conceived as self-sufficient and introverted, subdivided into neighborhood units of about 150 families.

One of the sectors in which the city was divided.

These sectors were linked by a network of streets called "the 7Vs". The "Vs" are pathways hierarchically organized  according to the intensity of the traffic flow that they support. Thus, V1 are national roads; V2 conduce to the special facilities; V3 are high speed avenues that cross the city leading to the local equipment V4, V5 are  neighborhood ways, the V6, domestic paths, the  V7 are pedestrian paths and the V8, subsequently added, are bikeways (Le Corbusier joked: "the 7Vs that are actually 8").

Each 1200 * 800 meters sector is linked to a V2 or V3 high-speed way. It is crossed from east to west by a V4 shopping street, which connects to other adjacent sectors, and to a V5 neighborhood way from north to south. V7 walkways connect to the fringes of parks and green areas.

Plan of Chandigarh by Le Corbusier.
Photo C. Zeballos (distorted by the lens angle)

Based on 4 main functions (living, working, moving and keeping a healthy body and spirit), the Corbusian proposal  makes an analogy between Chandigarh and the human body: the head is the Capitol (Sector 1), the heart the Central Area (Sector 17), the lungs were the Leisure Valley, parks and green areas, the brain, the universities and schools, the circulatory system were 7Vs ways and the digestive system, the industry.


Located in the far north, is the most important monument area and contains the most representative buildings of the city. Because of its importance we will discuss it in the next post.


Located at the junction of two main V2 roads, it is divided into two areas: the southern area is designated for the administration  and the northern sector for civic functions. This distribution separates the pedestrian and vehicular traffic.

One of the mixed-use blocks in the central area. Photo  C. Zeballos

It consists of a series of concrete blocks of 4 levels, arranged along four pedestrian ways that converge in a square or chowk, where are the most important civic and commercial buildings are located (in this blog have commented in other cases of  chowks in Bhakdapur Darbar in Nepal and in Jaisalmer , India).
As for the landscaping, the space includes pools designed by M. Sharman and the vegetation, that in summer months is essential.

Ornamental fountain in the central square or chowk. Photo C. Zeballos


Located at the junction of two V2 boulevards, is composed of a Museum, whose architecture will also be discussed in the next post.

Museum of Fine Arts, University of Punjab. Photo courtesy of Shub Shign


The Vallée des loisirs is a huge linear park that runs throughout the city and it is conceived as a more informal cultural and recreational area, in which Le Corbusier included outdoor theaters, monuments and other landscape design features.

One of several city parks. Photo C. Zeballos

The Sukhna Lake.

This huge reservoir of water located in Sector 1 was designed as a haven away from the noise of the city, in which Le Corbusier dreamed to contemplate the reflection of the Himalayas. Accompanying the lake is a nice, 25 m wide and 5 km long grove, which is usually very popular with families on weekends.

"Love is in the air" in the Sukhna Lake photo courtesy of babasteve.
The grrove in the lakefront. Curiously, access to this viewpoint cylindrical on the lake was closed because it had lately become a popular place for suicide. Photo C. Zeballos


In his book "Urban Planning in the Third World. The Chandigarh Experience" (1982), Madhu Sarin presents a sharp critique of the project for this city. Sarin  presents Le Corbusier as proud and arrogant, more focused on applying the CIAM abstract models than to address the specific problems of the Indian population for which the city was designed.  He accuses Le Corbusier of having rejected previous studies have favored a formalistic and aesthetic conception, without social or cultural considerations. Sarin explains in detail the numerous contradictions presented in the model, such as the system of land tenure, the informal occupation of peripheral sectors and the incompatibility problems of commercial and housing uses, which mainly affect the poorest.
In a similar vein, Ravi Kalia in his book "Chandigarh, The making of an Indian city" (1987), states that Chandigarh was a city "designed, but not planned", because it focused on the physical-spatial design of its urban fabric, but not considered issues such as productivity, reducing social tensions, economic integration of social classes and regional integration.
I must agree with Sarin on something, that Chandigarh is a city for the car, and walking around, especially in summer, is a torture. The Capitol monumental area is so far from the center that its access is often difficult for the city's population. Furthermore, although the physical structure of the city has remained, the original approach of separation of functions has proved unhelpful and unsuitable to Indian culture, and as a consequence in many parts of the city the original use has been varied, incorporating, for example, open markets.

Use in some blocks have been modified. C. Photo Zeballos

However, the socioeconomic figures show Chandigarh as an emerging city with the highest income per capita and the highest Human Development Index in the country. It is also, since July 2007, the first "smoke-free city" in India. This coincides with my overall impression, reinforced by interviews I conducted to the local people of various social levels. The consensus is that Chandigarh is an organized, efficient and very special city,  in which their inhabitants live proudly, with a superior quality of life than neighboring cities. Not to mention the aesthetic richness of its architecture, not only the Corbusian one, but the one developed by Indian architects and designers in subsequent years.

In any case, it is always interesting to compare opinions of Indian experts who know more deeply about their reality and problems, specially because Western literature has tended to discuss superficially on Chandigarh, almost worshiping the work of Le Corbusier which, while plausible in many respects, has left other serious questions unsolved.

In the next post we will discuss:
  • The Legislature
  • The Supreme Court
  • The Secretariat
  • Open Hand Monument

Girl in Chandigarh. Photo courtesy of Steve baba

  • Coming soon

Standing next to my cordial host Varun Sengal , who very kindly and without knowing me previously, he accompanied me on a tour around the city. 

Friday, November 16, 2012



In order to celebrate the day of the forests, a commemoration established by the emperor after the destruction of large forest areas during the Second World War, the renowned architect Tadao Ando was commissioned to design a museum complex in the midst of the forest of Mikata-gun, in Hyogo Prefecture. As part of Japan's environmental strategy, the project seeks to promote understanding, awareness and respect for nature.
The building is internationally known as the Museum of Wood (1994). However, the Japanese term Ki no Dendoo (木の殿堂) can be translated more like "Sanctuary Wood" (and boy, it is indeed a sanctuary because to get there it took me a whole pilgrimage).

Beyond its environmental connotations, the museum pays homage to the culture of wood in its various manifestations in the world. It is a space for reflection, more than just a space for the exhibition of objects.

The concept of the volume stands out for its simplicity: set on top of a hill, a truncated cone of 46 m in diameter housing a void cylinder  inside, emerges from the woods like a volcano in the middle of a green sea.

The conical shape is dramatically bisected by a long pedestrian bridge that goes into the forest, ending in a small cubic viewpoint that has been rotated 45 degrees.

The Pritzker Prize laureate has been widely recognized for his work in concrete, but in the Sanctuary Wood Ando demostrates that he is equally skilled in working with wood., in the same way as he previously did in the Japanese Pavilion at the World Expo in Seville.

Japan Pavilion at the Expo in Seville, designed by Tadao Ando, ​​was the closest reference to the museum of wood.
Photos courtesy of Philip Jodidio

The interior is a large exhibition space that unfolds along a spiral ramp, full of long columns of wood, about 18 meters high. The shape of the roof truss inevitably evokes Japanese temples and shrines in Kyoto, Nara and Tokyo
Kasuga Temple in Nara.

However, beyond a mere formal symbolism, Ando uses the complicated roof structure to provide the interior of an interesting game of light and shadow. The light helps to foster that sense of solemnity and respect that a sanctuary inspires.

 "The light sparkles coincide with the proximity of their extinction: the object appears and takes shape in the edge between the luminosity  and the dark", he says.

The game of light and the woodworking are a reference to Japanese traditional architecture.
Photo C. Zeballos

The exhibition contains a number of items related to the craft of wood: stunning  models of historical houses, photographs, a collection of woodworking tools in the world, ancient works in wood, a fully equipped media room and even crafts made by children and adults in the museum workshops.

Also, for the delight of architectural pilgrims, there is an exhibition showing sketches made by the architect during the design of the museum.

Sketch of the museum by Tadao Ando

It is obvious that the purpose of the building is not hosting internationally renowned work, like most museums, but has rather an educational nature and form of community outreach. Artistically, however, the continent is more attractive than the content.

The central crater of 20 m in diameter, animated by the cheerful sound of water flowing from numerous fountains, splashing on a stone base, was conceived as the point where the "sky and water metaphorically meet".

To make evident this union, a concrete bridge crosses the cone, allowing the visitors to feel amid a solemn emptiness, inside and at the same time outside the space, with the sky in their head, the wooden tongue and groove around them, the fountains at their feet and the forests on the horizon.

Attention to detail and simplicity, tradition and modernity, openness and intimacy, nature and artificiality, light and shadow are binomials resolved with sobriety, humility and expertise in this iconic building.


Thursday, November 8, 2012


Photo courtesy of mozgram


Expanding itself from the coast to the mountainside, Kobe, with its million and a half inhabitants, is one of the most modern cities and attractive ports of Japan. Located in the Osaka Bay, its industrial activity is based on industries such as shipyards, rubber material, chemicals, sugar and sake. The region is rich in growing fruits, vegetables, rice and tea.

However, the first image we have from Kobe is the earthquake that on January 17, 1995 devastated the city, particularly the Hyogo Awaji area. The quake, with an intensity of 7.3 degrees on the Richter scale had much tragic consequences. More than 6000 people lost their lives, modern infrastructure and buildings collapsed and entire neighborhoods were destroyed either by the earthquake or the fires that followed.

Although the city has literally risen from the ashes like a phoenix and is now more alive than ever, many of the reconstruction works were carried without considering the memory of the city, losing forever some of the little urban and architectural heritage which survived the bombings of World War II.

Unlike these works, Tadao Ando proposed to recover one of the most important aspects in the collective memory: the city's relationship with the sea. It was a happy coincidence that both the Hyogo Museum of Art (winner of an international competition) as well as the Kobe Waterfront Plaza (commissioned by the City of Kobe) were deigned by Ando, ​​who treated them as an integral proposal.

Outline Hyogo Art Museum and Plaza Oceanfront Kobe.
Sketch courtesy of Tadao Ando

This proposed urban development consisted of a complex of housing for the victims, a museum of modern art and an extensive park, located in an old port area in Hyogo, destroyed by the earthquake.

Museum and waterfront park
See location on Google Maps


Ando, ​​like many others in Kobe,has not forgotten the experience of the earthquake. The "Kobe Waterfront Plaza", besides being a large recreation area with trees, sport and walking areas as well as an outdoor auditorium neighboring the sea, it can also be used as a reserve area for refugees and a fire barrier.

"The external exhibition space is designed to be larger and richer in variety compared to conventional museums" says Ando. "The Waterfront Plaza is the core of the local community ... With the round plaza in its center, the stairs that gently shift levels and self-supporting the wall that tactfully manipulates the view to the sea, produce a diversified spatial sequence... The plaza connects the public space at the museum's base platform  in both visual and spatial series to create a water park with a spread of 500 meters along the border. "

View of the circular plaza outside the museum
Photo Carlos Zeballos


Unlike his other projects, this time the architect opted for a more severe and sober language that transmits an image of security, strength and durability, contrasting the devastating images of the disaster. The approach to the building from the city is achieved from an elegant footbridge. As the buildings show a more opaque face towards the city, Ando provides a pedestrian scale by means of a groove and a rough stone arch, contrasting with the polished dark volume that forms the rest of building.

Approaching the building from the pedestrian bridge
Photo Carlos Zeballos

Also, contrasting with the building massiveness, the other end of the boxes are visually opened to the seascape, by means of generous windows. In turn, the roof extends with wide eaves (a similar gesture to the museum designed by the same architect in Fort Woth, Texas, USA), creating a cozy terrace with gardens, and stairs, spreading into the bay.

The museum rests on a white polished granite platform upon which the three glass boxes are arranged in parallel, each of which encloses a concrete block. The space between the two boxes of glass and concrete is occupied by a surrounding gallery that in turn allows the enjoyment of landscape views.

One of the volumes, the wing of the gallery, is more separated than the others, leading to a passage running through the museum and providing a visual and physical connection between the Kobe mountains and the sea.

Distribution of the museum.
Image courtesy of the Hyogo Prefectural Museum of Art

This street is crossed by bridges and suspended plazas, allowing an easy communication between the different components of the museum building.

Photo courtesy of mozgram

In the middle of this street, is a light well, which houses a set of spiral staircases.

This device, besides providing natural light to the different levels and parking area -along with numerous other exquisite details that are typical in the work of this Japanese architect- adds a touch of grace to the severity manifested in the formal vocabulary of the rest of the building.

Detail of the external benches outside.

The interior of the Hyogo Prefectural Museum of Modern Art is remarkably minimalist. As he did in the Church of Light in Osaka, the austerity in the use of colors and materials (concrete, stone, steel and glass) stresses the majesty of space and light, which Ando manipulates to provide users with numerous sensations of scale and tone, and at the same time is a perfect setting to host modern art, often colorful and uniquely  and stridently shaped.

Inside the museum
Photo C. Zeballos


This time, the museum presents an exhibition of the Austrian painter Gustav Klimt . Founder of the Vienna Secession, Klimt (1862-1918) is the most important painter of the Art Nouveau movement. His works are full of color and eroticism, by introducing many organic forms taken from nature, meticulously decorated in golden tones.

Judith Playing in the poster exhibition

The exhibition featured many of his sketches of undoubted skill, as well as some of their belongings, including his nightstand, his particular and colorful costumes and interesting photographs.
His work includes an enormous painting murals installation including Greek themes and symbolic nudes. Among his most famous works is the remarkable portrait of his beloved Emilie Flöge called Judith, and the Nuda Veritas (Naked Truth).

Looking closely at the painting, impressionist influence can be seen, since the painting is made up of fine strokes violet, yellow, pink, blue, achieving a smooth and harmonious effect .

Nuda Veritas
Gustav Klimt

At this time, a murmur interrupts the quiet atmosphere of the museum ...

It is the master Ando himself, who has come to the museum and gives a short speech to the stunned audience!

Tadao Ando is a highly respected celebrity in Japan, a society that loves protocol and reverence. He is very spontaneous with Japanese students, though somewhat sullen with foreigners. Still, he gladly accepted a postcard from Machu Picchu that I had carried with me in my bag that day, just by chance.